Tag: Carbon

First-principles investigation of hydrogen-related reactions on (100)–(2×1)∶H diamond surfaces

Authors: Emerick Y. Guillaum, Danny E. P. Vanpoucke, Rozita Rouzbahani, Luna Pratali Maffei, Matteo Pelucchi, Yoann Olivier, Luc Henrard, & Ken Haenen
Journal: Carbon 222, 118949 (2024)
doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2024.118949
IF(2022): 10.9
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pdf: <Carbon>


Graphical Abstract for Carbon publication on the adsorption of H onto diamond.
Graphical Abstract: (left) Ball-and-stick representation of aH adsorption/desorption reaction mediated through a H radical. (right) Monte Carlo estimates of the H coverage of the diamond surface at different temperatures based on quantum mechanically determined reaction barriers and reaction rates.


Hydrogen radical attacks and subsequent hydrogen migrations are considered to play an important role in the atomic-scale mechanisms of diamond chemical vapour deposition growth. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the reactions involving H-radical and vacancies on H-passivated diamond surfaces exposed to hydrogen radical-rich atmosphere. By means of first principles calculations—density functional theory and climbing image nudged elastic band method—transition states related to these mechanisms are identified and characterised. In addition, accurate reaction rates are computed using variational transition state theory. Together, these methods provide—for a broad range of temperatures and hydrogen radical concentrations—a picture of the relative likelihood of the migration or radical attack processes, along with a statistical description of the hydrogen coverage fraction of the (100) H-passivated surface, refining earlier results via a more thorough analysis of the processes at stake. Additionally, the migration of H-vacancy is shown to be anisotropic, and occurring preferentially across the dimer rows of the reconstructed surface. The approach used in this work can be generalised to other crystallographic orientations of diamond surfaces or other semiconductors.

Impact of methane concentration on surface morphology and boron incorporation of heavily boron-doped single crystal diamond layers

Authors:  Rozita Rouzbahani, Shannon S.Nicley, Danny E.P.Vanpoucke, Fernando Lloret, Paulius Pobedinskas, Daniel Araujo, Ken Haenen
Journal: Carbon 172, 463-473 (2021)
doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2020.10.061
IF(2019): 8.821
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pdf: <Carbon>


Graphical Abstract B doped diamond
Graphical Abstract: Artist impression of B incorporation during CVD growth of diamond.


The methane concentration dependence of the plasma gas phase on surface morphology and boron incorporation in single crystal, boron-doped diamond deposition is experimentally and computationally investigated. Starting at 1%, an increase of the methane concentration results in an observable increase of the B-doping level up to 1.7×1021 cm−3, while the hole Hall carrier mobility decreases to 0.7±0.2 cm2 V−1 s−1. For B-doped SCD films grown at 1%, 2%, and 3% [CH4]/[H2], the electrical conductivity and mobility show no temperature-dependent behavior due to the metallic-like conduction mechanism occurring beyond the Mott transition. First principles calculations are used to investigate the origin of the increased boron incorporation. While the increased formation of growth centers directly related to the methane concentration does not significantly change the adsorption energy of boron at nearby sites, they dramatically increase the formation of missing H defects acting as preferential boron incorporation sites, indirectly increasing the boron incorporation. This not only indicates that the optimized methane concentration possesses a large potential for controlling the boron concentration levels in the diamond, but also enables optimization of the growth morphology. The calculations provide a route to understand impurity incorporation in diamond on a general level, of great importance for color center formation.

Influence of diamond crystal orientation on the interaction with biological matter

Authors: Viraj Damle, Kaiqi Wu, Oreste De Luca, Natalia Ortí-Casañ, Neda Norouzi, Aryan Morita, Joop de Vries, Hans Kaper, Inge Zuhorn, Ulrich Eisel, Danny E.P. Vanpoucke, Petra Rudolf, and Romana Schirhagl,
Journal: Carbon 162, 1-12 (2020)
doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2020.01.115
IF(2019): 8.821
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pdf: <Carbon> (Open Access)


Graphical Abstract Carbon paper with Romana
Graphical Abstract: The preferential adsorption of biological matter on oriented diamond surfaces.


Diamond has been a popular material for a variety of biological applications due to its favorable chemical, optical, mechanical and biocompatible properties. While the lattice orientation of crystalline material is known to alter the interaction between solids and biological materials, the effect of diamond’s crystal orientation on biological applications is completely unknown. Here, we experimentally evaluate the influence of the crystal orientation by investigating the interaction between the <100>, <110> and <111> surfaces of the single crystal diamond with biomolecules, cell culture medium, mammalian cells and bacteria. We show that the crystal orientation significantly alters these biological interactions. Most surprising is the two orders of magnitude difference in the number of bacteria adhering on <111> surface compared to <100> surface when both the surfaces were maintained under the same condition. We also observe differences in how small biomolecules attach to the surfaces. Neurons or HeLa cells on the other hand do not have clear preferences for either of the surfaces. To explain the observed differences, we theoretically estimated the surface charge for these three low index diamond surfaces and followed by the surface composition analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We conclude that the differences in negative surface charge, atomic composition and functional groups of the different surface orientations lead to significant variations in how the single crystal diamond surface interacts with the studied biological entities.